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Preparation of oxygen evolving electrodes with long service life under extreme conditions

François Cardarelli*, Pierre Taxil, André Savall, Christos Comninellis, Georgia Manoli and Olivier Leclerc

Abstract. - Among the numerous base metals tested for DSA® type electrodes (e.g., titanium and its alloys, zirconium, niobium etc.), tantalum is a potentially excellent substrate owing to its good electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance, and the favourable dielectric properties of its oxide. Nevertheless, a DSA® type electrode fabricated on a tantalum substrate would be very expensive due to the high cost of the metal. To prepare an anode combining the excellent properties of tantalum at reasonable price, a new material has been developed in our laboratory. This consists of a common base metal (e.g., Cu) covered with a thin tantalum coating. This tantalum layer was obtained by molten salt electroplating in a LiF–NaF–K2TaF7 melt at 800°C. Thus, an anode of the type Metal/Ta/Ta2O5–IrO2 with a surface load of 22 g.m-2 IrO2, submitted to the severe test conditions used in this work, exhibits a standardized lifetime tenfold greater than one made with ASTM grade 4 titanium base metal. Thus, this type of electrode might be advantageously employed as an oxygen evolution anode in acidic solutions.

Journal of Applied Electrochemistry
Volume 28, Number 3, March 1998, Pages 245-250 [Full text PDF file (584 KB)]

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Keywords: maths, physics, mechanics, quantum mechanics, relativity, electricity, electrostatic, electromagnetism, magnetism, thermodynamics, acoustics, optics, chemistry, general chemistry, inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, analytical chemistry, semi-micro qualitative analysis, quantitative analysis, physical chemistry, radiochemistry, nuclear chemistry, electrochemistry, spectrochemistry, surface chemistry, industrial chemistry, chemical engineering, electrochemical engineering, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, thermal engineering, civil engineering, nuclear engineering, materials engineering, materials science, materials data, properties of materials properties, aqueous electrolytes, electrolysis, electrodics, electrode kinetics, corrosion science, electrodeposition, electrowinning, electrorefining, electrocatalysis, electrodes, inert anode, dimensionally stable anodes (DSA®), chlorine evolution, ruthenium dioxide (RuO2), DSA-Cl2, DSA-RuO2, oxygen evolution, iridium dioxide (IrO2), DSA-O2, DSA-IrO2, mixed metal oxides (MMO), activated titanium anodes, oxide coated titanium anodes, lead anodes, lead-silver anodes, lead dioxide (PbO2), spinel electrodes, ferrites, cobaltites, lithium metal, lithium batteries, lithium ion batteries, lithium polymer batteries, fuel cells, molten salts electrolytes, molten slags, liquid metals, titanium metal, titania, titania slag, titanium slag, titanium dioxide (TiO2), titanates, corrosion resistance, ferrous metals (Fe, Co, Ni, Mn), pig iron and steel, cobalt and cobalt alloys, nickel and nickel alloys, manganese, ferroalloys, ferrosilicon, ferrophosphorus, ferrochromium, silico-ferromanganese, ferrovanadium, ferromolybdenum, ferrotungsten, ferrotitanium, common nonferrous metals (Al, Cu, Zn, Pb, Sn), aluminium and aluminum alloys, aluminum and aluminum alloys, copper and copper alloys, zinc and zinc alloys, lead, tin, light metals, less common metals, alkali-metals, alkaline-earth metals, refractory metals (Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, Re), titanium and titanium alloys, zirconium and zirconium alloys, hafnium and hafnium alloys, vanadium and vanadium alloys, niobium and niobium alloys, columbium and columbium alloys, tantalum and tantalum alloys, chromium, molybdenum and molybdenum alloys, tungsten and tungsten alloys, wolfram, rhenium and rhenium alloys, reactive metals, noble and precious metals (Ag, Au), silver, gold, platinum group metals (PGMs, Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir, Pt), ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, osmium, iridium, platinum, rare earths, scandium, yttrium, lanthanum (Sc, Y, La), lanthanides, actinides, uranides (Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu) and curides, uranium, thorium, plutonium, heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Hg, In, Tl, Pb, Bi), mercury, cadmium, nonmetals, semimetals, metalloids (Si, Ge, As, Sb, Se, Te), silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, selenium, tellurium, semiconductors, superconductors, advanced ceramics, refractories, glasses, dielectrics, hard and soft magnetics, minerals, ores, rocks, soils, meteorites, metrology, measurements, scientific units, weights and measures, conversion factors, conversion tables, handbooks, equivalences, manuals, guide, système international d'unités, SI, SI derived units, MKSA, Giorgi, metric system, US customary system, American units, US units, international electrical units, IEUS, centimeter-gram-second, CGS, emu and esu, MKpS, meter-ton-second, MTS, foot-pound-second, Stroud's system, FPS, Imperial units, British units, UK units, atomic units, au, ancient systems of units, national systems of units, extractive metallurgy, pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, earth's sciences, mineralogy, crystallography, petrology, petrography, geology, geophysics, geochemistry, biology, biochemistry, bio-implants, medecine, stable isotopes, primordial, cosmogenic, artificial, nuclides,  radionuclides, radioactivity, x-rays, alpha, beta, gamma, neutron, radiations, nuclear detectors, scintillation, nuclear fuel cycle, spent nuclear fuel, natural radioactivity.